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Slonaker: "Many popular articles have appeared in the past few years advocating this or that diet as best adapted to the needs of man. The argument is usually based on the personal opinion of the writer or the effects a certain diet may have had upon him. Such writings are of no scientific value "
   


VEGAN DIETS ARE DEFICIENT - SCIENTIFIC PROOF ALREADY IN 1912


Animal experiment -
vegan rats die early and have low energy

The following article is an excerpt from a 1912 scientific experiment on albino rats. The purpose was to compare the effects of a vegan (strictly vegetable) diet and an omnivorous diet. The diets were identical, except for a small addition (a few grams) of animal food 3 times per week to the omnivorous eaters. Even this minimal difference produced large differences in health and longevity of life.

For example:
  • "When the vegetarian male died it was 22.8 months old. The omnivorous male had accomplished the same amount of work when it was but 6.9 months old and had lived but 22.5% of its life. "

  • "In regard to growth, we must conclude that the data is decidedly in favor of the omnivorous rats and against the vegetarians."

  • "The ratio of omnivorous to the vegetarians in regard to efficiency would be 100 : 20.9, or about 5 : 1."

  • "After the third month the general average of the vegetarians falls below that of the omnivorous."

  • "We must not lose sight of the fact that this difference in ability to do work is caused by the presence of animal food in one diet and the absence of it in the other, this being the only difference in the environment."

  • "The vegetarians were emaciated and skinny. Their back arched and more or less stiffened. The fur was harsh and ruffled, and the tail and nose inclined to be more or less covered with dry scale and sores. The attitude presented extreme lassitude and indifference. They remained in a crouched position most of the time, their legs appearing too weak to support their weight for only a short while. They lacked energy..."
Remember that Dr. Bass mice resorted to cannibalism when they were deprived of animal foods. This was not the case here - the rats were kept in individual cages.




Excerpts from
THE EFFECT OF A STRICTLY VEGETABLE DIET ON THE SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY, THE RATE OF GROWTH, AND THE LONGEVITY OF THE ALBINO RAT

by James Rollin Slonaker, 1912
From the Physiological Laboratories of Stanford University
Leland Stanford Junior University publications. University series - No. 9 - by James Rollin Slonaker, 1912



INTRODUCTION.
The study of dietetics today occupies one of the most important places in the field of physiological investigation. Many popular articles have appeared in the past few years advocating this or that diet as best adapted to the needs of man. The argument is usually based on the personal opinion of the writer or the effects a certain diet may have had upon him. The personal idiosyncrasies which appear in these articles are too numerous to mention. Such writings are of no scientific value, and only show the trend of a certain class of people.
In contrast to these popular articles appear the writing of various scientific men giving the results of their investigations. These results are based on the comparative digestibility and absorption of the different foods and upon their ability to maintain nitrogenous equilibrium in the animal experimented upon.
The tendency of humanity is to go to the extremes, and nowhere is this more manifested than in dietetics. One class, vegetarians, maintains that man should abstain exclusively from animal foods, the other class claims that the human alimentary tract is more adapted to omnivorous food than to a strictly vegetable diet.
Vegetarianism as used by most people is a misnomer. The larger proportion of the so-called vegetarians partake freely of such animal foods as milk, eggs, butter, cheese and the like. A few, the fruitarians, live wholly on nuts and fresh fruits Another small group live on nuts, fruits, legumes and vegetables, either in the raw or cooked state. The much larger number of vegetarians (?) live on a mixed diet which differs from the ordinary mixed diet in only one respect - the absence of meat.
Most investigators have studied the effects of a certain diet on the animal for a limited time, which in most cases is insufficient to warrant such sweeping conclusions. Because an animal is able to maintain its weight and health for a limited time, is no argument that it could do so for its entire life. Neither has the effect on the offspring been ascertained. Such results can only be obtained by continuing the experiment during the lifetime of the animal and succeeding generations. The present experiment was undertaken to determine as fully as possible the comparative effect of a strictly vegetable diet, and an omnivorous diet, upon the spontaneous energy of the animal as manifested by its voluntary activity, the effect on its growth, and on the length of its life. An experiment is now under way to study the effect on the progeny. No attempt has been made to study the income and outgo of nitrogen.




MATERIALS AND APPARATUS

In order that such an experiment may be of value a number of similar animals must be used, and the environment of these must be the same in every respect, with the exception of diet.
In this experiment sixteen rats were used To secure these as nearly alike as possible, sisters were mated to the same male. After numerous trials, lasting more than a year, two sister rats of approximately the same size, which had been mated to the same male, gave birth to eight each, just a day apart. Previous observations have shown that the young of a litter of three not only averaged heavier at birth than those of a litter of ten, but also gained more rapidly during the nursing period and had a better start at the weaning time than those of the larger litter. Also the age of the mother had an effect on the size of the litter and the average weight of the young. Very young mothers were less prolific than older females.
Minot (3) found in his observations on the guinea pig that the average young of a litter of one weighed 85.5 grams, and the average of a litter of eight 52.2 grams. Also that the males averaged heavier (71 grams) than the females (70.2 grams). A similar condition exists between the sexes of the albino rat. This difference in weight of the two sexes becomes much more marked as the animals grow older. One should therefore have rats of the same age, of as nearly as possible the same parentage, the same number in the litter, and the same number of each sex. Owing to the fact that it is difficult to determine the sex of the young rats with accuracy, the sexes were not distributed as I would have wished.
These sixteen young were arranged and designated as follows:
No. 1 and No. 2 from litter A, and No. 3 and No. 4 from litter B, were put into revolving cages to be used as omnivorous feeders in determining their activity; No. 5 and No. 6 from litter A, and No. 7 and No 8 from litter B, were put in revolving cages to be used in ascertaming the amount of work the vegetarian feeders would perform; No. 9 and No. 10 from litter A, and No. 11 and No. 12 from litter B, were put in stationary cages for omnivorous controls; and No. 13 and No. 14 from litter A, and No. 5 and No. 16 from litter B, were placed in stationary cages for vegetarian controls. Thus each litter was equally and uniformly distributed. Unfortunately the sexes were not ideally grouped. The following table illustrates the manner in which the young were distributed.

                    Omnivorous Exercised Rats Vegetarian Exercised Rats Omnivorous Control Rats Vegetarian Control Rats
Litter No. Sex No Sex No. Sex No. Sex
A 1 Male 5 Male 9 Male 13 Female
A 2 Male 6 Female 10 Male 14 Male
B 3 Female 7 Female 11 Female 15 Male
B 4 Male .8 Female 12 Male 16 Male


Each rat was thus confined in a cage by itself, which served as its home for its entire lifetime, and from which it was taken at intervals of about two weeks for a time sufficient to weigh the rat and clean its cage.
The apparatus for recording the activity has already been described, (4) but may be briefly given again. It consisted of a series of eight cylindrical cages which revolved on stationary axles to which were attached the nest boxes. The food and water boxes were attached to the ends of the nest boxes. The cage thus revolved about the stationary nest box whenever the rat ran. Automatic devices were attached to register the number of revolutions and to record them on paper kept moving by a continuous roll kymograph. The first device being read in the morning and in the evening gave the daily and nightly run of each rat through its lifetime. The second arrangement showed the distribution of the activity of each rat for each twenty-four hours during its whole life. These records were of great assistance in showing the peculiarities of activity which occurred at different ages.
This apparatus was therefore only adapted to recording the running activity of the animals. Previous observations (2) have shown that the running activity of the rat is proportional to the other activities.
No. 1 and No. 2 from litter A, and No. 3 and No. 4 from litter B, were put into revolving cages to be used as omnivorous feeders in determining their activity; No. 5 and No. 6 from litter A, and No. 7 and No. 8 from litter B, were put in revolving cages to be used in ascertaining the amount of work the vegetarian feeders would perform; No. 9 and No. 10 from litter A, and No. 11 and No. 12 from litter B, were put in stationary cages for omnivorous controls; and No. 13 and No. 14 from litter A, and No. 15 and No. 16 from litter B, were placed in stationary cages for vegetarian controls. Thus each litter was equally and uniformly distributed. Unfortunately the sexes were not ideally grouped. The following table illustrates the manner in which the young were distributed.
Each rat was thus confined in a cage by itself, which served as its home for its entire lifetime, and from which it was taken at intervals of about two weeks for a time sufficient to weigh the rat and clean its cage.
The apparatus for recording the activity has already been described, (4) but may be briefly given again. It consisted of a series of eight cylindrical cages which revolved on stationary axles to which were attached the nest boxes. The food and water boxes were attached to the ends of the nest boxes. The cage thus revolved about the stationary nest box whenever the rat ran. Automatic devices were attached to register the number of revolutions and to record them on paper kept moving by a continuous roll kymograph. The first device being read in the morning and in the evening gave the daily and nightly run of each rat through its lifetime. The second arrangement showed the distribution of the activity of each rat for each twenty-four hours during its whole life. These records were of great assistance in showing the peculiarities of activity which occurred at different ages.
This apparatus was therefore only adapted to recording the running activity of the animals. Previous observations have shown that the running activity of the rat is proportional to the other activities.
Changes in the amount of the running activity are correct indicators of similar fluctuations in the other activities of the animal.


FEEDING

No attempt was made to give a definite amount of protein food in the diet nor to try to maintain nitrogenous equilibrium. The diet was varied as much as possible, and the amount of food given was more than was eaten before the feeding time on the following day. The feed and water boxes were then cleaned and a new supply given. Cracked corn was always given. The young were weaned at the age of 28 days and placed in their respective cages, as already described. A rich mixed diet, consisting largely of bread and milk with an occasional feed of baked beans and meat hash, was given all to prevent any disastrous effects resulting from the sudden change in environment and methods of feeding. This mixed diet was continued for twenty-eight days. At this age (fifty-six days) all appeared perfectly healthy and normal in every respect. They had each made a normal gain. The males averaged 70.1 grams and the females 59.3 grams.
The difference in the character of the food was introduced at this time, the one group being designated vegetarians, and the other, omnivorous feeders. These two groups were fed exactly the same food each day, with the exception of meat and other animal foods which were given about three times a week to the omnivorous feeders in addition to the vegetable food. The vegetable foods were as rich in protein as it was possible to obtain from this class of foods, and consisted of such articles as the following: fresh vegetables, such as lettuce, kale, cabbage, cauliflower, clover and celery; cooked vegetables, such as white, corn, brown and graham bread, biscuits, buckwheat cakes, doughnuts, crackers, cookies, oatmeal mush, fried cornmeal mush, dumplings, corn, rice, baked beans, potatoes, carrots and onions; nuts, fruits and grains, such as almonds, English walnuts, apples, cracked corn, wheat, and corn meal. Occasionally, when the vegetarians seemed to be losing ground too fast, a feed of cheese, milk, or some other animal food was given. This was done only a few times soon after the vegetarians were first put on their exclusive diet.
As can be readily seen, the above articles composing the vegetarian diet are either found on our tables or can readily be procurred from shops. Some of them contained small portions of animal food, i.e., graham muffins usually contain an egg and milk, bread often contains milk, doughnuts and several other articles contain animal fat. As only very small amounts of animal food were present as compared to a large quantity of vegetable food, I have called this a strictly vegetable diet, at the same time realizing it is not absolutely such a diet.
The amount of food given to each rat was not weighed, but measured as accurately as possible with a spoon, or by pieces of equal size.
The following few days' diet taken at random will serve to show the variety of food and its frequency.

April 23. Cooked corn, lettuce, cracked corn and water.
April 24. Water-soaked bread, almonds, lettuce, cracked corn and water.
April 25. Baked beans, lettuce, cracked corn and water. Omnivorous had also meat.
April 26. Graham muffins, almonds, cracked corn and water.
April 27. Water-soaked bread, lettuce, cracked corn and water.
April 28. Water-soaked bread, almonds, cracked corn and water.
April 29. Cracked corn and water.
April 30. Mashed potatoes, lettuce, cracked corn and water. Omnivorous had also meat.
April 31. Water-soaked bread, buckwheat cakes, cracked corn and water.

Another example at another season of the year is as follows:
Nov. 14. Bread, cracked corn and water.
Nov. 15. Potatoes, macaroni, cracked corn and water. Omnivorous had also meat.
Nov.16. Bread, oatmeal mush, cracked corn and water. Omnivorous had also meat and bread hash.
Nov. 17. Water-soaked bread, cracked corn and water.
Nov. 18. Water-soaked bread, cracked corn and water. Omnivorous had also meat and bread hash.

The amount of meat given to each of the omnivorous rats was usually small, consisting of but a few grams. It was given on an average two or three times each week.
We have thus sixteen rats as nearly alike in regard to age, parentage, size and tendencies as it is possible to obtain, subjected to the same environments, fed the same food with the exception that the eight omnivorous feeders had a few grams of animal food added to their diet about three times each week. It is obvious, therefore, that whatever differences may be found between these two groups of rats in regard to their activity, rate of growth, and longevity must be due wholly to the presence and absence of animal food in the two diets.


ACTIVITY

Fig. 11
Curves representing the average daily activity of each sex of the exercised rats at the ages indicated. (OM) is the omnivorous males, (OF) is of the omnivorous females. (VM) is the vegetarian males. (VF) is the vegetarian females.
In studying the characteristics of the activity one needs to refer to the kymograph records. Figures 1 to 10 inclusive are reproductions of such records, and show the activity of each rat for twenty-four consecutive hours at different ages. By comparing these figures a great difference is noticed in the activity at different ages.
Figure 1 represents the activity of each rat at the age of thirty-two days, and just four days after they had been weaned and placed in the revolving cages. There is no regularity in the distribution of the activity and periods of rest. Neither is there any apparent tendency to be more active at one time in the twenty-four hours than at another. They were restless, playful and filled with a spirit of investigation. Since they were all fed at this time on the same diet, any differences in the character of the activity may be attributed to individual variation.
In Figure 2, which shows the distribution of the activity, at the age of six months, two important things are noticed. First, the great bulk of the activity occurs during the evening and early night time; second, the omnivorous rats (O) are more active than the vegetarians (V). There is more or less random running for an hour or so before and after the feeding time (4 p.m.), but the most is done during the night.
At the age of eleven months (Figure 3) the periods of activity and rest are more sharply defined. Also the difference in the amount of voluntary activity of the two classes is very obvious. The activity of the vegetarians is approaching closely in appearance that of old age. (2)
In Figure 4 the activity at the age of sixteen months is seen. Some days previous to this record the feeding time was changed to the morning to see what effect it would have on the distribution of the activity. The main bulk is seen to remain constant, but the usual random running which occurs at the feeding time has shifted to the morning. At this age two of the vegetarians have died and the other two compare very unfavorably with the work of the omnivorous.
Figure 5, which represents the activity at the age of twenty-one months, shows that when the feeding time is returned to the afternoon the periods of activity and rest are sharply defined. The omnivorous feeders are still quite active when compared to the remaining vegetarians.
At the age of twenty-five months all the vegetarians were dead (Figure 6). The records of the omnivorous rats show a marked tendency toward old age. Especially is this true in No. 1 and No. 4.
The remaining figures (7, 8, 9 and 10) represent the records for the ages twenty-six, twenty-eight, thirty-one and thirty-four months respectively. No. 4 in Figure 7 shows the death struggle of this rat, which ended a little before 10 p.m.
In comparing these different records of activity, one notices that in the young rats the periods of activity and rest are of short duration and have no definite arrangement so far as the time of the day is concerned. As the rats grow older the activity becomes greater and occurs more and more during the night time, the periods of rest being confined to the daytime. This continues until the rats reach the prime of life. After some months of almost uniform activity there is a gradual reduction, and the distribution and amount of work done approaches that of youth. It also shows that the vegetarians are not as active, that they age more early, and that their duration of life is shorter than the omnivorous rats.
Since all the animals were fed on a mixed diet for twenty-eight days after commencing the experiment, any difference in activity during this period must he considered due to individual variation. This variation is sometimes very noticeable, as seen in Table I. This table represents the average number of revolutions of five consecutive days of each rat at the ages indicated. There is not a gradual and regular increase in the amount of running done by each, but fluctuations - now greater, now less. At first this was thought to be due to making the average from too small a number of days. Therefore another table (Table II) was made, by taking the average run of each sex of each group for a whole month. The figures in the column of the omnivorous males thus represent the average of thirty days' run of three individuals. But here again we see the lack of a uniform increase. In other words, the activity manifests itself rhythmically. No doubt if the number of individuals had been greater the results would have been more uniform. In a former paper I have discussed the causes of these fluctuations. (2)
Table II is put in the form of curves in Figure II. The rhythmical variations are very conspicuous. These fluctuations also correspond in many cases both in regard to time and appearance. For example, from the beginning to, the third month there is a rapid rise in the curves. showing a great increase in the daily activity. This was, no doubt, due to the feed, for they were all fed on a strong mixed, diet for almost a month, and on rich food for almost two months. The effect of this food carried them over apparently till the end of the third month, when they began to feel the effects of the lack of it. This was followed in a general reduction of amount of daily activity in all except the omnivorous female, which remained practically unchanged. Then, with the exception of the vegetarian female, there was another general increase up to the fifth month. Again, at the tenth month, all show an increase, excepting the vegetarian male, which shows a slight decrease.
It is especially noticeable that the curves representing the two sexes of the omnivorous feeders correspond much more closely in their fluctuations than those of the vegetarian feeders. In fact after the third month similarity in the character and time of these fluctuations of the omnivorous and vegetarian feeders grows rapidly less and less. The same may be said regarding the amount of daily activity of the two classes. The omnivorous female far surpasses all others. The omnivorous male comes next in order. Then follows the vegetarian female, closely followed by the vegetarian male. The females of each class thus surpass the males of the same group in average daily activity.
When we consider the time in life at which these rats do the greatest amount of daily running we see, on consulting the curves of Figure II, that it occurs in both classes at an early age in life, usually between the seventh and twelfth month. In the omnivorous feeders it is a little later than in the vegetarians. In a former experiment (2) it was ascertained that the greatest average daily run of the normal male and female occurred when they had reached a trifle more than one-third of their natural lifetime. In this experiment the vegetarians seem to have done their best day's work when about one-fourth of their life had passed. This was equivalent to about one-sixth of the lifetime of the normal omnivorous rat.
Let us now consider the total amount of work, as indicated by the number of revolutions which each of the exercised rats voluntarily made during its lifetime.
Table III represents the total number of revolutions of each rat at the ages indicated. To give a better idea of the amount of work equivalent to these revolutions, the actual distance in miles has been computed and shown in Table IV. By consulting these tables it is readily seen that the work done by all the rats corresponds rather closely during the first three or four months. This corresponds closely to the average daily work shown in Figure II. As a matter of fact the vegetarians average a trifle more at the end of the third month than the omnivorous. This is seen by consulting Table V, which represents the averages of each sex of these two groups.
From this I think one of two conclusions may be reached. Either the sudden reduction in the rich protein food of the omnivorous rats to almost a vegetarian diet (meat being given only two or three times a week) has had the effect of checking the activity of all alike, or a strictly vegetarian diet at this age is conducive to a slightly greater activity. If the latter is true it may be explained in this manner: The omnivorous rat had a satisfying diet; the vegetarians did not, and ran a great deal, apparently in search for what they desired. The behavior of the vegetarians strongly supports this supposition. When they were fed they ate ravenously, as if they had been starving. This was not so manifest in the omnivorous. It was true that both classes of exercised rats always appeared more hungry than the control rats of the same group.
After the third month the general average of the vegetarians falls below that of the omnivorous. This is shown in the curves of Figure 12. Here we see that the omnivorous female rapidly surpasses the omnivorous male in the amount of work done. The female vegetarian also excels the male of the same class in the distance run, but only to a small extent. The females are thus voluntarily more active than the males. We also note that the omnivorous male is much more active than either sex of the vegetarians. At the time of the death of the vegetarian rats (twenty-five months) the omnivorous female had voluntarily done almost nine and one-half times as much work as the female vegetarian, and the omnivorous male almost three and one-half times as much as the male vegetarian.
When the total amount of work voluntarily done by each class is considered, a still greater difference is observed. The omnivorous female ran a total distance of 5447 miles, while the vegetarian female ran only 492.1 miles, or a ratio of about 11 : 1. The omnivorous male ran 1588 miles, compared to 450.9 miles for the vegetarian male - a ratio of 3.5 : 1. The average run for both sexes was, for the omnivorous rats 3517.5 miles, and for the vegetarians 471.5 miles, or a ratio of almost 7.5 : 1.
We thus see that when the initiative and ability to do work - are considered, the result is decidedly in favor of the rats that had received animal food in their diet, and overwhelmingly against the vegetarians.

Fig. 12
Curves showing the average total work and the rate it was done of each sex of the exercised omnivorous and vegetarian feeders. (OEM) is the omnivorous males, (OEF) is of the omnivorous females. (VEM) is the vegetarian males. (VEF) is the vegetarian females.
The curves of Figure 12 show in a general way the rate at which the life's work was accomplished by each rat. But to show this more clearly Table VI has been constructed. The total average work for each sex in the two groups was arbitrarily divided into eight equal parts. Then the per cent of average lifetime required to do these fractional parts was computed; also the average age in months equivalent to this per cent is given. For example, when the omnivorous male had done one-eighth of its total life's work it had lived 16.1% of its average lifetime, and had reached the average age of 4.5 months. This table shows that the males of each group turn off their work at a relatively earlier age than the females on the same diet. As an illustration, when the omnivorous male had done one-half its life work it had lived 36.4% of its life, while the omnivorous female had lived 41% of its life when it had accomplished a similar part of its total work. A similar relation is seen to exist between the two sexes of the vegetarians. We also see that the same fractional part of total work is accomplished at an earlier age in the males than in the females of the same class, with the exception of the last two items in the vegetarian group: here the male is very slightly surpassed by the female. This shows that the male ages earlier than the female. That is, when the male has begun to be inactive the female of the same age is still quite active.
We further see that the vegetarians do the bulk of their work at an earlier age than the omnivorous rats. That is, they become old, decrepit, lack energy and a desire to be active at an earlier age than is true in the, case of the omnivorous rats. This is true both as to percentage of life lived and age in months. For example, when the omnivorous rats had done seven-eighths of their total work the males had lived 67.9% of their life and the females 72.6%, the two sexes averaging 70%. In the case of the vegetarians the males had lived 51.7% and the females 66.1%, or an average for the two sexes of 59%. We thus see that the vegetarians had still an average of 41% of their lives to live, during which time they did only one-eighth of their work. The omnivorous had an average of 30% to live to do the remaining one-eighth of their total work.
We have already shown that the ratio of total average work done by the omnivorous rats as compared to that of the vegetarians was about as 7.5 : 1. To make allowance for this, Table VII was constructed. This shows the percentage of lifetime of the omnivorous rats and their age in months which was required to do certain fractional parts of the total work of the vegetarians. That is, the two groups are considered in respect to their ability to perform the same amount of work. The data of the vegetarians is therefore the same in this table as in Table VI. From this we see that the average ages in months of the two dasses correspond rather closely until three-eighths of their work was done. After this the ages rapidly differ. When the vegetarian male died it was 22.8 months old. The omnivorous male had accomplished the same amount of work when it was but 6.9 months old and had lived but 22.5% of its life. The female vegetarian died at the average age of 16.9 months. In contrast, the omnivorous female had done the same amount of work at the age of 5.6 months, which was equivalent to but 16.6% of its lifetime. Or the average total amount of work of both sexes of vegetarians was performed at the average age of 19.8 months, - that is, their average lifetime. Both sexes of the omnivorous feeders had done the same work at the average age of 6.2 months, which was but 20.9% of their lifetime.
We thus have the same amount of work done by the two classes. The vegetarians required 19.8 months, or the whole of their lifetime, while the omnivorous needed only 20.9% of their lifetime, and averaged 6.2 months of age. Thus the ratio of omnivorous to the vegetarians in regard to efficiency would be 100 : 20.9, or about 5 : 1. We must not lose sight of the fact that this difference in ability to do work is caused by the presence of animal food in one diet and the absence of it in the other, this being the only difference in the environment.
If a table were made comparing the amount of work done by each class at the same average age, the difference would be more marked than just shown. It is not considered necessary to construct such a table.


GROWTH

Fig. 13
Curves representing the average growth of each sex of the four groups of rats. OCM and VCM refer to omnivorous and vegetarian control males; OCF and VCF represent omnivorous and vegetarian control females; OEM and VEM, omnivorous and vegetarian exercised males; OEF and VEF, omnivorous and vegetarian exercised females.
We have just considered what a marked effect on the efficiency of the rat these two diets had. Let us now consider the effect on growth.
The rats were weighed before feeding about once each two weeks. Weighings made approximately a month apart were selected in making Table VIII. This shows the individual weights of each of the sixteen rats at intervals of about a month during their entire lifetime. The young at the age of thirty days thus appear to be nearly uniform in size. The advantage is slightly in favor of the vegetarians, the males averaging 42 grams and the females 39 grams, while the omnivorous male averaged 41 grams and the female 38 grams. Twenty-eight days later, when the two groups were put on the omnivorous and vegetable diets, the sexes averaged approximately the same. Eleven days later a difference in the rate of growth is already noticed. This is more obvious in Table IX, which represents the averages of each sex in the different groups. As the rats became older this difference in weight was more and more noticeable, becoming greater as age advanced.
It was previously noted (2) that the control rats surpassed the exercised ones in weight. The same is observed here in both groups of rats. This is especially noticeable in the curves of Figure 13, which represent the data of Table IX. The heavy lines are the averages of the omnivorous rats, the light lines the vegetarians. The male in each case is decidedly heavier than the female of the same group. Also the control and exercised males excel both the control and exercised females of the omnivorous group. This relation does not exist in the vegetarian. The heaviest omnivorous female exceeds the heaviest vegetarian male by 9 grams and the heaviest vegetarian female by 36 grams. The maximum weight in each of these tables is shown in bold type.
A glance at Tables VIII and IX shows that, with the exception of the exercised vegetarian female, the exercised rats reach their maximum weight at an older age than the control rats, regardless of the diet. In Table X these facts are in a more accessible form. It shows the individual weights and the age of each rat, and the average weights and ages of each sex in each group, at the beginning of the experiment, as the maximum weight, and at death. As already stated, the average weights of the young were about as uniform as could be gotten. When the maximum weights are considered a marked contrast is noted. In every case the average weight of each sex is decidedly in favor of the omnivorous rats.        
Considering the exercised rats in regard to the maximum weights and weights at death, we find the following ratios:

  MAXIMUM WT. AT DEATH:
Omnivorous male to vegetarian male 1.8 : 1 2.2 : 1
Omnivorous female to vegetarian female 1.42 : 1 1.36 : 1


In regard to the control rats the following ratios were found:

  MAXIMUM WT. AT DEATH
Omnivorous male to vegetarian male 1.64 : 1 1.9 : 1
Omnivorous female to vegetarian female 1.22 : 1 .9 : 1


This last ratio is not reliable, as the control female had to be killed on account of sickness. There is no doubt had it been normal it would have reached a much heavier weight, since other omnivorous females did not reach their maximum weight until a much later age.
In regard to growth, we must conclude that the data is decidedly in favor of the omnivorous rats and against the vegetarians.
The appearance and attitude of the two groups is also in marked contrast. Figures 14, 15, 16 and 17 are photographs of eight of these rats, all being of the same age. Those on the left of each figure are omnivorous rats; those on the right are vegetarians. Figure 14 represents females. The other three figures are of males.
These photographs show the marked difference in appearance and attitude referred to above. The vegetarians were emaciated and skinny. Their back arched and more or less stiffened. The fur was harsh and ruffled, and the tail and nose inclined to be more or less covered with dry scale and sores. The attitude presented extreme lassitude and indifference. They remained in a crouched position most of the time, their legs appearing too weak to support their weight for only a short while. They lacked energy and would stay "put" when placed ready for photographing.

(Note: the excerpt ends here. No photographs and only a few tables have been included.)


Also read about  
Dr. Bass mice experiments
In Search of the Ultimate Vegetarian Diet - A four-year project I undertook to answer fundamental questions about nutrition, questions such as what is the best diet for humans? .... I wondered how long I would have to wait to discover relevant information. ..... . I felt so frustrated that I started to think about setting up my own mouse trials.

Also read: How to Live on a 100% Raw (Vegetarian) Diet Healthfully
Mice experiments - Raw Diet: On 1/9/83 through 2/15/83, I put six mice for a total of 35 days on a 100 % raw vegetarian diet. Nothing else was added. .... I concluded that humans could safely live on this unfired diet for almost three years - the 30:1 ratio of 35 days for mice being equivalent to 35 months for humans....

 
WATCH YOUTUBE INTERVIEWS WITH DR. BASS
"amazing long-lived natural doctor!"



SUPERIOR HEALTH

My First Water Fast
I was startled by the statement that all colds, fevers and influenzas were nature's attempt to free the body of disease. I devised an experiment to test this - click here
Fruit - Friend or Foe?
He lived on nothing but grapes - By the 32nd day, his gum was bleeding - one of his teeth fell out. He exclaimed: My God, I am detoxicating my teeth - click here
Symptoms to Expect when Improving Your Diet
This initial letdown lasts about ten days, and is followed by an increase of strength, a feeling of diminishing stress and greater well-being. - click here
How Diseases are Cured
Dr. Shelton: - It is high time to learn about the causes of disease and of the "complications" that so frequently develop under regular care - click here
The Time-factor in Recovery
Dr. Shelton: - Why do we expect to get well in a hurry of a condition that requires a life-time for its development? - click here
Sequential Eating
Any quick digesting foods must wait till the slowest digesting foods leave the stomach - a process which can take up to 6 or 8 hours. - click here
How Important is Diagnosis?
Once the truth of how to live is understood, the process of illness can be reversed more or less painlessly by intelligent living - click here
How to Live 100 Years
If you follow a minimal diet you can achieve super nutrition. Let's look at Luigi Cornaro, who at age 35 was weak, sick, and dying - click here

EMOTIONS & ENERGY

How to Solve Problems
The following method, ancient in its origin, has been practiced by several civilizations dating back for thousands of years. - click here
Causes of Addiction to Habits
The key which unlocks the mystery of why most habits are difficult to break lies in the understanding of the stimulation and depression mechanism. - click here
How to Overcome Temptations
The very moment an undesirable craving has entered your consciousness, DON'T struggle with it. Absolutely REFUSE to consider its existence - click here
Attentive Eating
A subject which can radically change a person's life in all of its aspects - physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually. - Attentive eating. - click here
Energy in the Body
The lift we get from drinking coffee, or the expression of strong emotions - is the expenditure of energy, not its accumulation - click here
Energy, Feeling and Thought
The person who feels depressed or negative most of the time is low on the energy level scale and needs to increase rest and sleep - click here
The Energy Principle in Healing - New Concepts
All healing and regeneration is in ratio to the amount of energy which is available - the more energy, the more detoxicating healing - click here

SUPER NUTRITION

Three Generations of Hygienists
These children, the skeletal development wasn't right, the dental arches were not well-formed, teeth came in crowded - click here
In Search of the Ultimate Diet
I put a group of mice on a fruitarian diet. But they didn't seem to be eating very much fruit, and they certainly weren't crazy about it - click here
The Ideal 100% Raw Diet
My aim here was to try to find a diet of 100% raw foods that mice and equally humans could live on, with all the factors needed for excellent health - click here
Vegetarian Diet & Food Plan
Dr. Cursio: - it represents more than 55 years of this brilliant nutritionist's experience as one of the greatest teachers in the field of Natural Hygiene - click here
Vegan rats die early & have low energy
When the vegetarian male died it was 22.8 months old. The omnivorous male had accomplished the same amount of work when it was but 6.9 months old. click here

SUPER NUTRITION - NON-VEGETARIAN

Primitive Man - His Diet and Health
The duration of life is long, the people being yet strong and vigorous as they pass the three score and ten mark, and living in many cases beyond a century. click here
Vilhjalmur Stefansson: Adventures in Diet
I have lived in the Arctic for more than five years exclusively on meat and water ... I tried the rotten fish one day, and liked it better than my first taste of Camembert. During the next weeks I became fond of rotten fish. click here
Aajonus: Primitive Diet Example
After 12 years eating raw meat and never having had any more than a little diarrhea, I learned to relax and not fear raw foodborne bacteria and parasites. click here
Dr. Shelton: How Much Protein?
There is a delicate balance between carbohydrates and proteins, to which we have to conform - disease and degeneration resulting from failure to conform. click here
Drs. Eades: High-Carbohydrate Problems
An anthropologist examining skeletal remains of early man can tell immediately whether the bones and teeth belonged to a hunter-gatherer (mainly protein eater) or a farmer (mainly carbohydrate eater)..." click here
Dr. Rosedale: Insulin's Metabolic Effects
The actual rate of aging can be modulated by insulin... We should be living to be 130, 140 years old routinely. click here  
Insulin's Crucial Role: insulin article 2   What is mTor? insulin article 3
Cancer & The Warburg Effect
The theory is simple: If most aggressive cancers rely on the fermentation of sugar for growing and dividing, then take away the sugar and they should stop spreading. click here
Swami Narayanananda: Food And Drink
Many sects and people have very crude ideas about food and drink. In India, some narrow-minded and bigoted people have much hatred for non-vegetarian diet. click here

SPIRITUALITY

The Ten Health Commandments
Thou shalt lift thyself up through obedience to all of Nature's laws, and help thy brother to attain the same. click here
The Truth Behind All Religion
God is not punishing us with illness and disease. Our suffering is due to our ignorance of food's relation to health and happiness. click here
Practicing with Certainty
People who are told they have emotional problems are suffering from thinking problems. Their emotions are working fine. click here
Vivekananda: Man's True Spiritual Nature
Let positive, strong, helpful thought enter into their brains from very childhood. Lay yourselves open to these thoughts, and not to weakening and paralysing ones. click here

SITE MAP








HOW YOU CAN USE THE ARTICLES:

If you are sick, read:
How Diseases are Cured
The Time-factor in Recovery
How Important is Diagnosis?
How to Live 100 Years
What Symptoms to Expect when Improving Your Diet
My First Water Fast

If you have a hard time changing habits, read:
Causes of Addiction to Habits
The Power of Habit Explained
How to Overcome Temptations

If you are suffering from depression or low energy, read:
Energy, Feeling and Thought
Energy in the Body

If you are trying to overcome an addiction, read:
Causes of Addiction to Habits
The Power of Habit Explained
How to Overcome Temptations
Energy, Feeling and Thought

If you are trying to lose weight, read:
(about low-carb + raw diets as the correct strategy:)

The High-Carbohydrate Diet and Related Health Problems
Insulin's Metabolic Effects (Why eat less carbohydrates?)
How much weight-loss on raw juices vs. fasting?
Preventing Cellulite - the Diet Solution
(about overcoming the physical 'sugar' craving:)
Causes of Addiction to Habits
What Symptoms to Expect when Improving Your Diet
(about the emotional battle:)
Attentive Eating
How to Overcome Temptations
Energy, Feeling and Thought

If you don't want to change your diet, but still become healthier, read:
Sequential Eating
How to Live 100 Years
Energy, Feeling and Thought
Energy in the Body

If you are looking for the ultimate vegetarian diet,
- or have been damaged by veganism - read:

With Three Generations of Vegetarian Hygienists
In Search of the Ultimate Vegetarian Diet
Fruit - Friend or Foe?
The Ideal 100% Raw Diet
Natural Hygiene Vegetarian Diet & Food Plan
Sequential Eating
What Symptoms to Expect when Improving Your Diet

If you are looking for a non-vegetarian diet that will give superior health:
Primitive Man - His Diet and Health
The High-Carbohydrate Diet and Related Health Problems
Insulin's Metabolic Effects (Why eat less carbohydrates?)
New Concepts in Nutrition, Health and Rapid Healing of Illness
Primitive Diet Example
Sequential Eating
What Symptoms to Expect when Improving Your Diet

If you expect or have children, read:
Birth Defects can be Avoided!
What You do when You Vaccinate
How Diseases are Cured

If you want a better sex-life, read:
Energy-Karezza - fascinating & powerful sex
Enjoying Superior Sex Your Entire Life - radio interview
Energy-Karezza book excerpt

If you are new to Natural Hygiene, read:
How Diseases are Cured
The Time-factor in Recovery
How Important is Diagnosis?
My First Water Fast
New Concepts in Nutrition, Health and Rapid Healing of Illness




This website is a good example of Natural Hygiene - a 150+ year-old self-empowering healing and health philosophy that was started by medical doctors - but almost forgotten in the 20th century.
Learn why it is now becoming mainstream again. Learn more about why no-drugs healing methods are not only cheap, but vastly superior.
Visit the organization   International Natural Hygiene Society - where Dr. Bass is one of the founders.



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